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Sleep reverts changes in human gray and white matter caused by wake-dependent training

Bernardi, Giulio and Cecchetti, Luca and Siclari, Francesca and Buchmann, Andreas and Yu, Xiaoqian and Handjaras, Giacomo and Bellesi, Michele and Ricciardi, Emiliano and Kecskemeti, Steven R. and Riedner, Brady A. and Alexander, Andrew L. and Benca, Ruth M. and Ghilardi, Maria Felice and Pietrini, Pietro and Cirelli, Chiara and Tononi, Giulio Sleep reverts changes in human gray and white matter caused by wake-dependent training. NeuroImage, 129. pp. 367-377. ISSN 1053-8119 (2016)

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Abstract Learning leads to rapid microstructural changes in gray (GM) and white (WM) matter. Do these changes continue to accumulate if task training continues, and can they be reverted by sleep? We addressed these questions by combining structural and diffusion weighted {MRI} and high-density {EEG} in 16 subjects studied during the physiological sleep/wake cycle, after 12 h and 24 h of intense practice in two different tasks, and after post-training sleep. Compared to baseline wake, 12 h of training led to a decline in cortical mean diffusivity. The decrease became even more significant after 24 h of task practice combined with sleep deprivation. Prolonged practice also resulted in decreased ventricular volume and increased {GM} and {WM} subcortical volumes. All changes reverted after recovery sleep. Moreover, these structural alterations predicted cognitive performance at the individual level, suggesting that sleep's ability to counteract performance deficits is linked to its effects on the brain microstructure. The cellular mechanisms that account for the structural effects of sleep are unknown, but they may be linked to its role in promoting the production of cerebrospinal fluid and the decrease in synapse size and strength, as well as to its recently discovered ability to enhance the extracellular space and the clearance of brain metabolites.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.01.020
Additional Information: Available online 23 January 2016
Uncontrolled Keywords: Extracellular space, Mean diffusivity, DWI, MRI, Sleep deprivation
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Research Area: Computer Science and Applications
Depositing User: Caterina Tangheroni
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2016 11:37
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2017 10:18
URI: http://eprints.imtlucca.it/id/eprint/3032

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