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Workload Change Point Detection for Runtime Thermal Management of Embedded Systems

Das, Anup and Merrett, Geoff V. and Tribastone, Mirco and Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. Workload Change Point Detection for Runtime Thermal Management of Embedded Systems. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 35 (8). pp. 1358-1371. ISSN 0278-0070 (2016)

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Applications executed on multicore embedded systems interact with system software [such as the operating system (OS)] and hardware, leading to widely varying thermal profiles which accelerate some aging mechanisms, reducing the lifetime reliability. Effectively managing the temperature therefore requires: 1) autonomous detection of changes in application workload and 2) appropriate selection of control levers to manage thermal profiles of these workloads. In this paper, we propose a technique for workload change detection using density ratio-based statistical divergence between overlapping sliding windows of CPU performance statistics. This is integrated in a runtime approach for thermal management, which uses reinforcement learning to select workload-specific thermal control levers by sampling on-board thermal sensors. Identified control levers override the OSs native thread allocation decision and scale hardware voltage-frequency to improve average temperature, peak temperature, and thermal cycling. The proposed approach is validated through its implementation as a hierarchical runtime manager for Linux, with heuristic-based thread affinity selected from the upper hierarchy to reduce thermal cycling and learningbased voltage-frequency selected from the lower hierarchy to reduce average and peak temperatures. Experiments conducted with mobile, embedded, and high performance applications on ARM-based embedded systems demonstrate that the proposed approach increases workload change detection accuracy by an average 3.4×, reducing the average temperature by 4 °C-25 °C, peak temperature by 6 °C-24 °C, and thermal cycling by 7%-35% over state-of-the-art approaches.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: 10.1109/TCAD.2015.2504875
Additional Information: SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-84979539453; WOS Accession Number: WOS:000380061700011
Uncontrolled Keywords: Embedded systems, Hardware, Thermal management, Temperature dependence, Central Processing Unit, Voltage control, Thermal stresses
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA76 Computer software
Research Area: Computer Science and Applications
Depositing User: Caterina Tangheroni
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2016 14:39
Last Modified: 06 Oct 2016 14:39
URI: http://eprints.imtlucca.it/id/eprint/3573

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