Bernardo, Marco and De Nicola, Rocco and Loreti, Michele
A uniform framework for modelling nondeterministic, probabilistic, stochastic, or mixed processes and their behavioral equivalences.
CSA Technical Report
IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca
Labeled transition systems are typically used as behavioral models of concurrent processes, and the labeled transitions define the a one-step state-to-state reachability relation. This model can be made generalized by modifying the transition relation to associate a state reachability distribution, rather than a single target state, with any pair of source state and transition label. The state reachability distribution becomes a function mapping each possible target state to a value that expresses the degree of one-step reachability of that state. Values are taken from a preordered set equipped with a minimum that denotes unreachability. By selecting suitable preordered sets, the resulting model, called ULTraS from Uniform Labeled Transition System, can be specialized to capture well-known models of fully nondeterministic processes (LTS), fully
probabilistic processes (ADTMC), fully stochastic processes (ACTMC), and of nondeterministic and probabilistic (MDP) or nondeterministic and stochastic (CTMDP) processes. This uniform treatment of different behavioral models extends to behavioral equivalences. These can be defined on ULTraS by relying on appropriate measure functions that expresses the degree of reachability of a set of states when performing
single-step or multi-step computations. It is shown that the specializations of bisimulation, trace, and testing
equivalences for the different classes of ULTraS coincide with the behavioral equivalences defined in the literature over traditional models.
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